Sunday, February 7, 2010

Developmental dyspraxia



Developmental dyspraxia is one or all of a heterogeneous range of development disorders affecting the initiation, organization, and performance of action.

Developmental dyspraxia entails the partial loss of the ability to coordinate and perform certain purposeful movements and gestures. It may be diagnosed in the absence of other motor or sensory impairments like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.

Dyspraxia is an SpLD (specific learning difficulty) so it does not affect overall IQ or ability, it just affects particular aspects of development. Indeed, in some families, unusually high IQ and dyspraxia are associated, with nearly everyone with dyspraxia in the family also having a postgraduate degree. The view that dyspraxia is associated with below-average intelligence is potentially damaging in two ways; it can prevent people who are otherwise obviously able from obtaining appropriate help, and it can mean that people diagnosed with dyspraxia are treated as globally learning-disabled when they can be very able in other areas.

The concept of developmental dyspraxia has existed for more than a century, but differing interpretations of the terminology remains.

The Dyspraxia Foundation defines developmental dyspraxia as "an impairment or immaturity of the organisation of movement. It is an immaturity in the way that the brain processes information, which results in messages not being properly or fully transmitted. The term dyspraxia comes from the word praxis, which means 'doing, acting'. Dyspraxia affects the planning of what to do and how to do it. It is associated with problems of perception, language and thought."

Developmental dyspraxia (referred to as developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the US and Europe) is a life-long condition that is more common in males than in females, with a ratio of approximately 4 males to every female. The exact proportion of people with the disorder is unknown since the disorder can be difficult to detect due to a lack of specific laboratory tests, thus making diagnosis of the condition one of elimination of all other possible causes/diseases. Current estimates range from 5% - 20% with 5-6% being the most frequently quoted percentage in literature(Gaines, Missiuna,Egan & McLean 2008). Ripley, Daines, and Barrett state that "Developmental dyspraxia is difficulty getting our bodies to do what we want when we want them to do it", and that this difficulty can be considered significant when it interferes with the normal range of activities expected for a child of their age. Madeleine Portwood; a Senior Specialist Educational Psychologist employed by Durham County Council, UK, and author of Developmental Dyspraxia--A Practical Manual for Parents and Professionals; makes the distinction that dyspraxia is not due to a general medical condition, but that it may be due to immature neuron development. The word "dyspraxia" comes from the Greek words "dys" meaning impaired or abnormal and "praxis", meaning action or deed.

Dyspraxia is described as having two main elements:

Ideational dyspraxia

Difficulty with planning a sequence of coordinated movements.

Ideo-Motor dyspraxia

Difficulty with executing a plan, even though it is known.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Lagu Saya Ada Kuda

video

Lagu ini sesuai untuk kanak-kanak disleksia kerana mempunyai unsur pengulangan.

Famous People with the Gift of Dyslexia



Actors & Entertainers:
Harry Anderson
Orlando Bloom
Harry Belafonte
Charley Boorman
Tom Cruise
Dave Foley
Danny Glover
Whoopi Goldberg
Susan Hampshire
Jay Leno
Christopher Lowell
Keanu Reeves.
Kiera Knightley
Edward James Olmos
Oliver Reed.
Billy Bob Thornton.
Tom Smothers
Vince Vaughn
Robin Williams
Henry Winkler
Loretta Young

Inventors & Scientists:
. Ann Bancroft, Arctic Explorer.
Alexander Graham Bell.
John Britten, Inventor.
Thomas Edison.
Albert Einstein.
Michael Faraday.
Carol Greider, Molecular Biologist, awarded 2009 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
Willem Hollenbach, astronomical photographer and inventor.
Jack Horner, Paleontologist.
Dr. James Lovelock.
Paul MacCready "Engineer of the Century."
Archer Martin, Chemist (1952 Nobel Laureate)
Pierre Curie, Physicist (1903 Nobel Prize).
John R. Skoyles, Brain Researcher


Artists, Designers, & Architects:
Leonardo da Vinci.
Ansel Adams, Photographer.
David Bailey, Photographer.
Chuck Close.
Ignacio Gomez, Muralist.
Tommy Hilfiger, Clothing Designer.
Ian Marley, Contemporary Artist, South Africa.
Pablo Picasso.
Robert Rauschenberg.
Auguste Rodin.
Bennett Strahan
Robert Toth
Jørn Utzon (architect, designed Sydney Opera house)
Andy Warhol.
Willard Wigan, micro sculptor.

Law & Justice:
David Boies, Attorney.
Erin Brockovich, Investigator.
Jeffrey H. Gallet, Judge.

Military Heroes:
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson.
George Patton.

Musicians & Vocalists:
Cher.
Brad Little.
John Lennon.
Nigel Kennedy, Violinist.
Bob Weir, Grateful Dead Guitarist.

Athletes:
Muhammad Ali, World Heavyweight Champion Boxer
Duncan Goodhew, Olympic Swimmer
Bruce Jenner, Olympic Decathlon Gold Medalist
Magic Johnson
Greg Louganis
Bob May, golfer.
Diamond Dallas Page, World Wrestling Champion.
Steve Redgrave, Olympic Gold Medalist (rowing).
Nolan Ryan, Baseball Pitcher.
Rex Ryan, Coach.
Jackie Stewart, race car driver.

Physicians & Surgeons
Harvey Cushing, Surgeon.
Fred Epstein, Neurosurgeon.

Political Leaders:
Winston Churchill.
King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Michael Heseltine.
Andrew Jackson.
Thomas Jefferson.
John F. Kennedy.
Gavin Newsom, Mayor of San Francisco.
Nelson Rockefeller.
Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator.
Woodrow Wilson.
George Washington.

Entrepreneurs & Business Leaders:
Richard Branson,Founder of Virgin Enterprises.
John T Chambers,CEO of Cisco Systems.
Henry Ford.
William Hewlett, Co-Founder, Hewlett-Packard.
Ingvar Kamprad, founder of IKEA.
Craig McCaw, Telecommunications Visionary.
O.D. McKee, founder of McKee Foods.
David Neeleman, CEO of jetBlue Airways.
Paul J. Orfalea, founder of Kinko's.
Charles Schwab, Investor.
Ted Turner, President, Turner Broadcasting Systems.
F.W. Woolworth


Filmmakers:
Robert Benton.
Nicole Betancourt, Emmy-winning filmmaker.
Walt Disney.
Søren KraghJacobsen (Danish film director).


Writers & Journalists:
Scott Adams, Cartoonist (Dilbert)
Hans Christian Andersen
Avi
Jeanne Betancourt, (Author of "My Name is Brain Brian").
Stephen Cannell, television writer & novelist.
John Corrigan, novelist..
Larry Chambers.
Andrew Dornenburg, award-winning author and chef.
Agatha Christie.
Fannie Flagg (Author of "Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe").
F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Gustave Flaubert.
Terry Goodkind fantasy writer, author of The Sword of Truth series.
Byron Pitts, CBS News Correspondent.
Patricia Polacco, Children's Author and Illustrator.
Eileen Simpson (Author of "Reversals").
Elizabeth Daniels Squire(author of mystery novels).
Bernie Taylor, author of Biological Time.
Victor Villaseñor
W.B. Yeats

Bagaimana guru membantu kanak-kanak disleksia di dalam kelas?




Banyak cara yang boleh dilakukan oleh guru dalam membantu kanak-kanak disleksia selain dari kaedah dan teknik mengajar. Antaranya adalah:
• Dudukkan kanak-kanak di hadapan kelas.
• Guru hendaklah bercakap dengan suara yang tenang dan jelas.
• Tulisan guru mestilah terang dan jelas
• Beri masa yang lebih kepada kanak-kanak dalam menyelesaikan kerja mereka.
• Berikan kelonggaran kepada mereka.
• Banyakkan penglibatan kanak-kanak dalam kemahiran lisan.
• Elakkan kerja-kerja rumah yang terlampau banyak.
• Semasa kanak-kanak lain sedang membaca sendiri, guru cuba ajarkan kanak-kanak
bermasalah itu membaca secara fonetik.
• Jangan marahkan kanak-kanak jika tersalah mengeluarkan buku pelajaran tetapi bantulah dia.
• Sediakan bahan pengajaran yang baik.
• Gunakan aplikasi teori Gestalt.
• Tekankan ke atas pengamatan butiran.
• Konsep kedudukan dan orientasi huruf.
• Berikan latihan kemahiran urutan pandangan.
• Pengajaran menyela bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kemahiran membaca.

Prosedur pengajaran kepada kanak-kanak disleksia pandangan yang tidak dapat belajar melalui gambaran pandangan kerana tidak dapat mengait perkataan dengan makna dan tidak dapat mengekalkan ingatan tentang imej sesuatu perkataan ialah melalui kaedah pengajaran fonetik/ linguistik di mana kaedah ini bukan sahaja menekankan bacaan dan ejaan tetapi juga cara menulis dan menggabungkan perkataan, ayat dan idea-idea agar ianya bermakna dan logik. Oleh itu guru perlulah mempunyai pengetahuan yang luas dalam fonetik dan linguistik. Antara kaedah fonetik dalam pengajaran adalah melalui:
• Ajar nama dan huruf bunyi
• Ajar huruf yang bermula dengan setiap bunyi.
• Ajar mengenal huruf berdasarkan bunyi.
• Ajar perkataan bunyi huruf.
• Pengadunan bunyi membentuk perkataan yang bermakna.
• Mengelompokkan perkataan dalam huruf yang sama.
• Perkenalkan adunan bunyi dua huruf konsonan.
• Perkenalkan adunan bunyi huruf konsonan dengan vocal.
• Perkenalkan ayat, perenggan dan cerita yang senang dan pendek.

Dalam kaedah fonetik/ linguistic, kanak-kanak hendaklah di ajar secara lankah dan logik. Latih tubi adalah berdasarkan teknik multy sensory. Teknik ini menggunakan pengamatan penglihatan dan pengamatan pendengaran kanak-kanak selain dari membabitkan penulisan kembali dan mengulang pembacaan secara kuat apa yang telah ditulis. Langkah-langkah terperinci adalah seperti berikut:
1) Guru menunjukkan di kad imbasan dengan gambar yang bermula dengan huruf tersebut
dibelakangnya. Murid dikehendaki menyebut huruf tersebut.
2) Guru menyuruh murid ulang ayat tersebut.
3) Guru sebut sekali lagi, kali ini mengikut suku kata.
4) Murid menulis ayat tersebut. Sambil menulis, sebut ayat tersebut.
5) Guru menyuruh murid menyebut perkataan yang ditulis.
6) Jika terdapat kesilapan, murid mencarai sendiri dengan cara semakan.

Kaedah dan teknik ini dapat mempertingkatkan daya ingatan murid dalam membina ayat kerana guru telah memulakannya dari ayat pendek kepada ayat yang lebih panjang dan semakin susah.Bagi kanak-kanak yang menghadapi masalah dysleksia pendengaran di mana merteka akan memberi respon positif terhadap pengajaran bacaan awal yang menggunakan pendekatan seluruh perkataan adalah dengan cara:
• Membentuk kesepadanan pendengaran dan pandangan.
• Mengajar perbendaharaan kata yang berlainan bunya dan bentuk.
• Menggunakan pendekatan pengalaman bahasa.
• Menggunakan mesin pengajaran seperti Language Master, Autoscore dan computer dalam
pendidikan.
• Aktiviti pengadunan dan intergrasi.
• Peningkatan keupayaan diskriminasi dan analisis pendengaran.

Dyslexia Help: What Dyslexia Parents Can Do




Dyslexia Help: The Early Years (ages 1-5) - How Parents Can Help:
- Reading to your child:
Helps develop vocabulary, attention and listening comprehension. If possible read to your child on a daily basis. Vocabulary knowledge is helped not just by hearing words but by listening to parents read and eventually their own reading experiences. Having your child sit down and listen to you while a story is read greatly helps to develop attention span and listening concentration. Listening comprehension (understanding and remembering what somebody has told you) is also developed. As children get older (aged 4-5) they should start reading with you, initially just by reading one or two familiar words and then gradually engaging the child more and more in a shared reading experience (eg alternating sentences). Eventually (by around the age of 5-6) they should be taking over more of the reading experience.

- Playing "sound" games:
Promotes early phonological awareness (speech/sound awareness) and therefore helps children to break down words into their constituent speech sounds. Children with dyslexia struggle to hear, manipulate and be aware of the speech sounds in words. Examples of games to play might include: I Spy, how many words do you know beginning with "s"?, rhyming etc. Lots of sound based games (perhaps accompanied by pictures) help to draw a child's attention to the sounds within words which will make reading much easier.

- Teach letter sounds from early on:
Help children to know the individual sounds that go with each letter of the alphabet. When children link their awareness of sounds in words with their awareness of sounds in letters they form a connection between sounds and letters. This is what phonic learning is all about and once children can do that they will forge ahead.


Dyslexia Help: The Middle Years (ages 5-7 and beyond) - How Parents Can Help:
- Reading:
Keep reading to your child and have him/her read to you. Plenty of daily reading practice is very important. Ten minutes every day is sufficient (especially for a child with a reading problem). Use reading materials that they find interesting, enjoyable and that are not too difficult where, they are capable of reading most of the words correctly rather than needing help all the time. Reading gives the opportunity to practice decoding words and sounding out words. It also helps expand word specific reading vocabulary and with older children builds up speed and fluency.

- Keyword Spellings:
There are 100 words that we use a lot, known as high frequency words - very common place words. They make up about half the words that we read and spell. By getting a child familiar with these high frequency keyword spellings the spelling error rate will be greatly reduced. Irregular words (such as "the", "was", and "when") will have to be learnt as whole units. Learning these keyword spellings and practicing reading them (using flashcards and within context) and practicing writing keywords will significantly help spelling.

- Teach word identification strategies:
These can be used to supplement the decoding skills and decoding strategies that dyslexics often struggle with. Alternative reading strategies such as context cues and position of words in sentences can be used. Help the child use the story content and the context of a word as well as the words positioning in a sentence (combined with decoding skills) to come up with the right word.

- Reading Comprehension:
Whenever you are reading with your child it is important to ensure that they are understanding and remembering what they are reading. Ask questions about passage content or ask him/her to tell the story back to you.

Learning Styles




There are four main learning styles.. auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic. Your child will learn best through one or more of these learning channels, and you can help him become a successful learner by teaching the child through his primary learning style(s). When you see programs say they are "Multi-sensory", this means the instruction utilizes all, or most, of these channels in each lesson, and multisensory teaching is of benefit to all children.

Auditory activities include reading, listening, hearing, etc. These are channels used in a typical school classroom. At first you may confused because you may think, as I initially did, that reading is solely a visual activity. Reading is an auditory activity because it involves the language center of the brain and language processing skills which are auditory in nature. When you read, you "hear" the words.

If you suspect your child might have dyslexia, you should know our neuropsychologist told us "Not all visual learners have dyslexia, but all children with dyslexia are visual learners." Thus, the child with dyslexia will do better with visual teaching tools rather than learning through lecture, reading, and writing. Children with dyslexia take in information through watching - videos, movies, plays, demonstrations, etc. They pick up TONS of information from their daily environment. Because of their visual learning style, children with dyslexia often enter school as BRIGHT, gifted kids, eager learners and soon get labeled otherwise because they are now being taught through their weakest channel. If you have a child who has "true dyslexia", then you will want to seek out instruction that uses primarily the visual channel. Most children have a primary learning style, and a secondary style, so instruction will be most effective if it includes all learning channels.

Manipulatives are excellent for kinesthetic and visual learners, since the manipulatives are both visual and moving. They would not be as effective for a child with visual processing problems. A child with visual processing problems would learn more effectively from the auditory and kinesthetic learning channels.

For children with auditory processing problems, the visual and kinesthetic channels are most critical for content learning. A child with significantly impaired movement might find kinesthetic learning channels the most difficult to use. The key is to know what channel is most useful to your child and teach towards that learning style. Most children can learn through all channels and if they are taught through all channels they will have maximized learning because what they don't get from their main channel, they may get from another. Thus, the most effective instructional method for teaching *ALL* children is multi-sensory instruction. If you'd like to know more about developing multi-sensory lessons for your child, please visit our Free Multisensory Instruction Training.

Whatever your child's learning style, computer software can serve most children well. More and more companies are making learning fun, interactive, both visual and auditory, and providing robust computer solutions for learning. Using computer software can be an excellent way for most children to learn any topic. My main source for academic based software is the Academic Superstore. This company focuses on academic software and offers substantial discounts, making it a great place for homeschoolers or families to acquire high quality programs at a good price.

Additionally, you might want to consider learning posters as a way to provide good visuals for your child. Good colorful posters of processes, cycles, categories, etc. can be worth a thousand words to a visual learner. All Posters has a huge collection of learning posters and you can see some of them at our poster store.

The easiest online tools to use in determining learning styles are Abiator's Online Learning Styles Test 1 and Test 2. I LOVE these tests because the questions are relatively easy to answer, the scoring is automatic, and the results also give tips for the specific learning style. The tips are great for helping you teach your child.

Another tool I like is the Memletics Learning Style Inventory which asks a series of questions, then scores the results, and indicates your dominant and secondary styles. This inventory uses seven learning styles: Visual, Aural, Verbal, Physical, Logical, Social, and a Solitary learning style. While the styles vary from the widely accepted four styles, this inventory's additional segmentation provides a more in depth profile.

A simple paper-based version, provided as a PDF file, is the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic tool developed specifically for assessing learning styles in high school students. You can download the questionaire, including the scoring guide, at this link for the VARK Questionaire for Younger People. VARK also has other tools for assessing learning styles that you may find helpful.Determine your child's learning style, then teach towards your child's specific learning style strengths. The table below provides you with ideas for teaching to each of the primary learning styles. Many times a child will have overlapping styles and many of the activities apply to more than one learning style.

Auditory:
Read Alouds, Debates, Panel, Discussions, Informal, Discussions, Interviews, Lectures & Speeches, Books on Tape, Text-to-Speech, Plays, Radio, Broadcasts, Music & Songs

Visual:
Movies & Videos, Television, Pictures, Posters, Murals, Maps, Charts, Graphs, Field Trips, Computer , Software, Demonstrationa, Dramatizations, Experiments

Kinesthetic:
Games, Models & Diaramas, Math, Manipulatives, Letter Tiles, Scrabble, Computer, Software, Arts & Crafts, Hands-On practice, Experiments, Field Trips

Tactile:
Arts & Crafts, Clay modeling, Gardening, Dress-Up, Math,
Manipulatives, Painting, Sewing, Highlighting, Computer, Software

Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic-Tactile teaching method




Using the VAKT multi-sensory teaching method.

A multisensory method like the VAKT (Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic-Tactile) can be used to help children remember words. Select words needed to be learned (like the Dolch word lists). Write these words on cards using a crayon so that the letters or words have texture.
Using VAKT, the teacher models and the student repeats for each word:


(a) say the word, trace the word with two fingers while saying each part of the word, say the word again;

(b) write the word without looking at the word card and then compare what was written to the word card; and

(c) repeat the first step until the word is written correctly three consecutive times without looking at the prompt card.

Students may draw pictures to go along with the words as visual reminders. Any teaching method used must be meaningful and directed toward purposeful learning.

The instruction provided must be conducive for each student’s needs, ability levels, and success of progress.

Davis Dyslexia Correction Explained




The Basic Davis Methods:

Ronald Davis theorizes that dyslexic individuals are picture thinkers who experience perceptual disorientations in the senses of time, vision, hearing, and/or balance and coordination. Davis Dyslexia Correction provides a solution based on two key elements:



  • A method for controlling perceptual disorientation.

  • A method for eliminating the causes for perceptual disorientation.


Resolve the Disorientation.


Fortunately, it is very easy to stop the disorientation. All we have to do is teach the student how to recognize when they are disoriented, and then how to use their own mind and awareness to turn off their disorientation – or, in other words, to become "oriented." This really is no more difficult than teaching a child how to hold their breath while swimming underwater; it is simply a matter of learning to consciously control something that usually happens in our minds without our awareness.

Over the years, Davis providers have developed several methods for teaching this control. The most common and reliable way is called Davis Orientation Counseling®, and is described in detail in The Gift of Dyslexia. Using this technique, the student learns to mentally move their 'mind's eye' to a different vantage point, until they find the optimum point for focusing attention, called the orientation point. Students who have difficulty with the visualization approach can achieve the same effect through a kinesthetic approach, called Alignment and Fine-Tuning. Both are followed by an auditory approach called Auditory Orientation.

Resolving disorientation is necessary before the student can progress, because otherwise the student will continue to misperceive letters and words. If one word sometimes looks like bat, and at other times looks like tab or pat or tap or tad - there is no hope that the student will ever be able to recognize the word. A parent or teacher might think that the student has memory problems and encourage drill and repetition, whereas the student is confused and frustrated because the tutor seems to be showing him different words each time.

Fortunately, the methods are easy to teach. Since it involves a skill that dyslexic children are good at – using their imagination – they usually catch on very quickly.

Sometimes, especially with older children and adults, the results from Orientation Counseling are extremely dramatic, resulting in an immediate jump of several levels in reading ability. This is because for these children, their disorientation has been the major barrier to progress. They may have already had years of education or tutoring; once disorientation is resolved, all their past experience clicks in to place, and progress is typically extremely rapid.

However, learning to control disorientations does not resolve dyslexia. All it does is resolve a key symptom of dyslexia, not the underlying cause. Until you fix the cause, the symptoms will inevitably recur.


Resolve the Factors that Trigger Disorientation:

The reason that controlling disorientation is not enough to resolve dyslexia is that the disorientation is a response to confusion, frustration or stress. In the case of reading, this response is triggered by confusion over letters or words. As long as this confusion exists, and there is no picture for what a word represents, the student will continue to become disoriented when reading.

For reading, writing and spelling improvement, the Davis method involves three basic steps:


  • Mastery of the alphabet and basic language symbols.

  • Mastery of words for which the dyslexic has no picture or meaning.

  • Building sequencing and comprehension skills during reading.


Resolving Letter Confusion -- The Clay Alphabet:


Disorientation is often caused by individual letters that are visually or auditorially confusing to dyslexics. For example, my son found it difficult to distinguish c from e because of their similar appearance; others have problems with c and s or c and k because they often represent the same sound.



Thus, the first step toward resolving dyslexia is to create the letters of the alphabet in clay. We use clay because it is a three-dimensional medium and also involves a creative, participatory act. By molding the letters in clay, the alphabet is no longer something arbitrary but something the child (or adult) has made, and thus becomes a part of them.



Through observation of how the student forms the letters, and how they react to saying the names of the letters, we can find which are 'triggers' for disorientation, confusion and misperception; and help the student overcome the confusion aroused by that letter.
The student models two complete alphabets, first upper case, then lower case. As each set of letters is mastered, the student explores and discovers the correct shape, name and sequence of each letter.



Alphabet Mastery is followed by similar work with punctuation marks and pronunciation or speech sounds. With this knowledge, the student is equipped to use one of the most important tools for learning that we can provide the picture-thinker: the ability to explore the meaning of words with the dictionary.



Putting Pictures to the Words: Davis Symbol Mastery®



The words that cause the most confusion for dyslexics are common words, such as it or from. Often a student will easily read a longer word in a story, such as crocodile, but hesitate or stumble over a word like the. Because these words lead to disorientation, we call them trigger words.



This is because the dyslexic student thinks with pictures. It is easy to envision a crocodile in one's mind, but very difficult to imagine an 'of' or a 'this'. We resolve this problem through a process called Davis Symbol Mastery. After looking up a word in a dictionary and discussing a definition with a helper, the student models an object or set of objects which accurately represents the meaning of the word, as well as the letters of the word in clay. This process goes far beyond the multi-sensory and phonemic awareness strategies that are recommended for dyslexic learners. It engages the creative process and establishes a lasting mental image for a specific word and series of letters. It produces comprehension and long term retention of the spelling and meaning of a word without the need for phonetic decoding or memorization. It stops the word from causing any future disorientations.



There are more than 200 trigger words in the English language that have to be mastered, but once this is done the student has developed a working arsenal of sight words - words that are both recognized and understood as soon as they are seen. All you have to do is count the number of small, abstract words in this sentence to see what a difference that will make.



The other goal is that the student has learned a method that can be applied to any word or concept. Davis Symbol Mastery can also be used to master the vocabulary of any subject. The word 'polygon' or 'cytoplasm' can be mastered even more easily than the word 'by'. As the student grows older, he has a method that will enable him to master any concept that causes problems in school. Three Steps to Easier Reading.



To help dyslexic students master the mechanics of reading, and increase reading speed and comprehension, we use a set of three techniques: Spell-Reading, Sweep-Sweep-Spell, and Picture-at-Punctuation. One problem that dyslexics have is that it is not natural for them to sound out words letter by letter, or even track the letters of a word from left-to-right, taking in one letter at a time. As picture thinkers, they want to look at all the words at once. Their struggle to sound out written words leaves them unable to comprehend written material and usually necessitate re-reading the same text numerous times often at the cost of severe headaches. These exercises allow dyslexics a way to quickly, comfortably and easily learn to visually track, decode, and comprehend written material using their natural abilities.



A detailed explanation of the Davis Theory of dyslexic thinking and development as well as a step-by-step instructions for the Basic Davis Methods can be found in the book The Gift of Dyslexia. Abigail Marshall is the author of the books The Everything Parent's Guide To Children With Dyslexia and When Your Child Has Dyslexia. She has been the webmaster of the Dyslexia, the Gift web site since 1995.

Davis Strategies



Davis Learning Strategies were conceived in 1993 and developed after six years of piloting in several US primary school classrooms.

Their goal is to give Key Stage 1 and 2 classroom teachers and learning support assistants an effective and efficient way to develop the beginning reader into an accomplished reader by the end of Year 4, and to give their students lifelong skills in “how to learn”.

Davis Learning Strategies training is primarily intended for those wishing to work with children of mixed learning styles in a classroom environment. If your interest is in support training for dyslexia, AD/HD and/or related learning difficulties, click here for details of our dyslexia training programme.

The core Davis Learning Strategies:
Davis Focussing Skills are an innovative set of self-regulation skills. These simple tools provide students with the self-directed ability to be focussed on the learning task at hand.


Davis Symbol Mastery allows students to master the alphabet, punctuation marks and basic sight words with a simple, easy and fun alternative to pencil-paper activities and drill exercises.

Davis Reading Exercises improve skill in word recognition and comprehension. They can be used alone or as a supplement to other reading programmes.

Davis® Learning Strategies tap into the creative learning process of all children regardless of their learning style and speed. The naturally strong kinaesthetic learning style of all young children is employed as a primary learning tool in the acquisition of literacy skills.

Materials are “non-consumable” and can be used over and over again in many curriculum areas, making the Strategies easy to implement and flexible…
… while mental “how-to-learn” tools help children to stay on task…
...and build self-esteem through success.